The Atlas of Middle-earth. KAREN WYNN FONSTAD Revised Edition HOUGHTON MIFFLIN COMPANY BOSTON To Todd, Mark, and Kristi — (still pieless). Editorial Reviews. spicesinlaris.cf Review. The publishing world is full of Tolkien spinoff products, The Atlas of Middle-earth by [Fonstad, Karen Wynn]. may be helpful to cartography students. Mapping Middle-earth. 1'he opportunity to pr'oduce an entire atlas of "mental maps" was admittedly somewhat unique;.
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Jul 14, The Atlas of Middle-earth. KAREN WYNN FONSTAD Revised Edition HOUGHTON MIFFLIN COMPANY BOSTON To Todd, Mark, and Kristi. Mar 11, The Atlas of Middle-earth by Karen Wynn Fonstad is an atlas of various lands in Arda. It includes specific maps for The Silmarillion, The Lord of. Aug 2, Karen Wynn Fonstad's THE ATLAS OF MIDDLE-EARTH is an essential volume that will enchant all Tolkien fans. Here is the definitive guide to.
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North-West Middle Earth Campaign Atlas Gazeteer
Hundreds of two-color maps and diagrams survey the journeys of the principal characters day by day -- including all the battles and key locations of the First, Second, and Third Ages. Plans and descriptions of castles, buildings, and distinctive landforms are given, along with thematic maps describing the climate, vegetation, languages, and population distribution of Middle-earth throughout its history. An extensive appendix and an index help readers correlate the maps with Tolkien's novels.
The tarns in to the north. The extension of the mountains north Dorthonion, however, lay at the feet of the tors. It is more likely that Tolkien applied the term as it is used in the North of England — a generic term meaning any lake. These periglacial features usually occur on granite, and less frequently on sandstone.
Few trees could withstand the water, so there the evergreen. All this was far was shown for one reason: All travellers from Valinor to Thangorodrim — even Morgoth — passed through Lammoth and Hithlum. Its land dipped gently east from the black sea cliffs "torn in towers and pinnacles and great arching vaults"45 to Linaewen with its marshes. The waters gathered from the lands wandered in intermittent rivulets, for there were no permanent streams. Linaewen, with its fluctuating shores, widespread marshes, and reedy beds, must have been quite shallow — probably only about twenty feet in depth.
These were the lands held mostly by the Sindar, with the notable exception of Finrod's realm of Nargothrond though the Noldor later retreated to Beleriand after and Narog in the west.
The process52 normally involves a surface stream with rapids , which gradually develops underground channels that disappear at a "swallow hole. The most noticeable features be enlarged, developing steep falls. If the subterranean of the lands south of the central highlands other than the Wall of Andram were the rivers that headed from the southern slopes. On the eastern border flowed Gelion, a product of the Ered Luin. For the most part, Sirion's system drained the region, and its channel divided West and East Beleriand.
Its original source was Eithel Sirion, where springs emptied from the Ered Wethrin, but the river was fed by many tributaries. Those of the west arose in the Ered Wethrin — most notably Teiglin and Narog.
Those of the east were fed in many directions from Dorthonion — Rivil's Well, the Dry River of Gondolin, Mindeb which had breached one of the few passes into the highland , Esgalduin, and Aros which arose in the high southeastern portion. Even clues about the topography of the area were, for the most part, couched in references to the river systems.
The rivers flowed south, as the land sloped down from the central highlands; but the flow was not always steady and smooth. At Dimrost, the "rainy stair" later called Nen Girith, the "shuddering water" , Celebros tumbled toward Teiglin. In about the same area Turgon climbed the cliffwall of the gorge of Teiglin to kill Glauring. They possibly crossed an outcrop or escarpment of some relatively resistant rock.
Farther east, it is possible that fissures along beds and joints in an outcrop of rock may have formed the basis for the delving of Menegroth. Approached from the south, it appeared as an endless chain of hills. The rock layer forming this outcrop may have been soluble limestone. There were extensive caverns at Nargothrond in the west. Sirion plunged underground at the north edge of the hills, and reissued from tunnels three leagues south nine miles , at their feet.
Partial collapse at the point of resurgence of the overlying rock may leave natural arches, such as the Gates of Sirion. Beleriand Ered Luin The Ered Luin were more important as a barrier to westward migration and as the source for the tributaries of Gelion than they were as population centers.
In the mountains themselves, only the Dwarves dwelt, carving the cities of Nogrod and Belegost, and mining the iron, copper, and related ores throughout most of the history of Middle-earth. The appearance of eroded upfolds "breached anticlines" indicate sedimentary rock, which often holds lodes of iron.
Copper, however, is more commonly found in crystalline rock, so the geology was evidently complex, as could be expected in any large range. The area around Mt. Rerir was fairly high and may have supported glaciers in the past. Lake Helevorn was "dark and deep,"55 and appeared to lie in a trough thrusting into the mountains, similar to a finger lake.
The rest of the range must have been fairly worn down, with its former peaks eroded and washed down to form the alluvial plains to the west. The mountains were not snow-capped, and the Elves had far less difficulty crossing them than, for example, they did the Misty Mountains.
The western slopes captured the moist winds of Belegaer and the Bay of Balar and fed the seven rivers. North of Ascar the winds would have been drier having passed over a larger land area , and there were no tributaries for forty leagues. The lands of Ossiriand were warm and gentle, with the seven rivers flowing rapidly in valleys such as that of the Thalos where Finrod first discovered mortal Men.
Those who refused the journey and shunned the light became known as the Avari, the Unwilling. They became known as the Noldor, the Deep Elves. Many never departed, and some turned back very early. Since they always tarried behind, they were dubbed the Teleri. Seeing the great black clouds that still persisted near Utumno, some grew afraid and departed.
Whether any or all later trod the western path was not told. In this way they eventually came to those now familiar lands — possibly along the very path that later became the Old Forest Road.
Karen Wynn Fonstad The Atlas of Middle Earth .pdf
They passed through a forest, probably Greenwood the Great; and to the eastern shores of a Great River, later known as the Anduin. The Teleri, always the slowest and most reluctant, camped long on the eastern shore. The Vanyar and the Noldor pressed on across the river, climbed the mountain passes, and descended into Eriador. Their path must have been far enough south to allow comfortably warm travel and far enough north to require passing through the mountains instead of around them, to be free of the southern forests, and to allow THE GREAT MARCH fording the major rivers.
In short, it was most likely that the Great East Road had its origins in this path of great antiquity. After long years of the sundering, Ulmo returned the island ferry, but many were no longer willing to go.
Atlas Of Middle Earth
Within the pass, the city of Tirion was fashioned and in it dwelt the Noldor and also the Vanyar until they chose to return to the plain of Valinor. In spite of arguments of his half-brothers, his will prevailed over all but a tithe of the Noldor; and with only hasty preparations the Noldor marched forth. Being unsuccessful, he waited until most of his following had arrived, then led them to the harbor and began manning the vessels.
The Teleri repulsed them until Fingon arrived, the leading part of Fingolfin's host. His strength was added to the affray, and the Noldor at last won to the ships and 18 The Atlas of Middle-earth departed before most of Fingolfin's host had even arrived.
They were left to toil slowly up the rocky coast while the Noldor rowed just offshore in the rough seas. Long they journeyed, and both the sea and the land were evil enemies. Then, far in the north as they climbed in Araman, they were arrested by a powerful voice that prophesied the Doom of the Noldor.
Then Finarfin and his following, least willing from the start, returned to Tirion; but most of the people continued. Sailing east and south, they landed at Losgar, and burned the white ships.
Weeks may have passed before they touched the solid ground of Middle-earth with the rising of the moon. After seven days the sun rose just as Fingolfin marched into Mithrim. Outside the Girdle was Brethil, a less populous area. All the Teleri eventually came to acknowledge Thingol as Lord, and so were loosely grouped with the Sindar. When the Noldor returned from the West Thingol decreed: "In Hithlum the Noldor have leave to dwell, and in the highlands of Dorthonion, and in the lands east of Doriath that are empty and wild.
Turgon completed building Gondolin in All these realms survived through the Long Peace until , when the Siege of Angband ended. In the short fifty years following, they were overrun one by one until the remaining Elves were pushed to the brink of the Sea.
If the latter were the case, the correct bedrock such as that found at Nargothrond would have been necessary for development of a cavern system — but Menegroth was far north of Andram. It has been assumed, therefore, that these were not large natural caverns but were primarily hand-cut.
Then anything seems possible! The hill of stone must have run to the very edge of Esgalduin, for only by crossing the stone bridge could the gates be entered. Little specific information was given, however. About 5O the Dwarves returned to avenge the deaths of their kin who fell when Thingol was slain.
They succeeded in stealing the necklace, but it was later regained. They were unsuccessful in their quest, however, for Elwing fled from Menegroth with a remnant of the people, and with them went the Silmaril. Soon after, Finrod visited Thingol and was inspired to build a stronghold like Menegroth.
He learned of the Caverns of Narog and initiated his construction.
The Long Wall was evidently soluble rock, most possibly limestone. So great was the task that the Dwarves named him "Felagund" — Hewer of Caves.
Before the doors was a terrace — broad enough to allow Glaurung to lie upon while the captives were herded away.
Originally, the Elves were forced to go twenty-five miles north to ford the river,16 but after Turin came in ,17 he persuaded Orodreth to build a mighty bridge. As it could not be lifted to prevent passage, the bridge proved to be their downfall. When the city was occupied in about ,8 these physical properties were well-utilized.
The Hidden Way was comprised of the river's abandoned tunnel and ravine. The Way was blocked by a series of seven gates, constantly guarded: built of wood, stone, bronze, wrought iron, silver, gold, and steel. It appears to have been flat-topped. The Tower of the King was equally high, with its turret standing eight hundred feet above the Vale.
Down through the hill and far north under the plain, Idril directed the excavation of an escape route. Several points support this second interpretation: i The heights of Dorthonion necessitated bypassing it in any travel between Thangorodrim and Menegroth.
On both the first and second 'Silmarillion' maps, however, Thangorodrim was shown in a location that was empty on the previously published map.
Topographically, the Ered Engrin have been illustrated as a block-fault range with a south-facing escarpment. This interpretation was based on the idea that a sharp south-facing scarp would have lent maximum protection to Melkor's fortresses.
Volcanic activity was evident from the smokes blown over Hithlum during the Noldor's first encampment. The plains were probably a steppe climate, for they were fairly dry, as well as cold.
The moisture of the west and south winds could not reach them, for The First Age 9 it fell in the central highlands. Thus, the plains had no streams,29 although they supported grass, until during Dagor Bragollach, the Battle of Sudden Flame, when Ard-galen was burned.
Afterward, the sod could enough in the distant past for a lake to have formed and drained through the underground river , leaving its alluvial sediment to stand as the flat green Vale of Tumladen. The volcanic areas of the Iron Mountains never reestablish itself, due to the poisonous airs of Thangorodrim; and the plain became Angfauglith, the were close enough to account for this otherwise isolated volcano to the south — especially since the choking dust, a desert with dunes.
This was the area settled, for the most part, by the Noldor. From its borders they set watch over the northlands of Morgoth. The lands received warmer south and west winds, and were cool but pleasant, except in the higher elevations. The north winds of Morgoth often assailed them.
The Atlas of Middle-Earth pdf
Hithlum had cold winters. Dorthonion was raised mountain-building activities would produce weakness in the earth's mantle, allowing extrusions of lava. The heights of the Crissaegrim may have resulted from the residual caldera crest atop the already steep and sheer escarpment of Dorthonion. The ores mined by Maeglin in the north of the mountains might have been either intruded later or might have occurred in rock formations there prior to the vulcanism.
Hithlum was described as ringed by mountains. The Ered Wethrin of the east were the highest portion, yet were lower than the Ered Gorgoroth. The interior of Hithlum appears to have been slightly elevated as well.
Portions in the south were steeply ducing springs such as those of Ivrin and Sirion. Caves, folded and possibly faulted, producing the sheer southern precipices of the Ered Gorgoroth. In the east were also higher peaks, and what appeared on the map to be a fault-line valley.
These usu- such as those of Androth where Tuor lodged, could have occurred in many rock types — as do springs. This map includes an area north of that mapped by Tolkien.
The mountains of Tolkien's drawing extend off the edge, leaving the reader ignorant of what lay ally form high on glaciated mountains. The tarns in to the north. The extension of the mountains north Dorthonion, however, lay at the feet of the tors. It is more likely that Tolkien applied the term as it is used in the North of England — a generic term meaning any lake.
These periglacial features usually occur on granite, and less frequently on sandstone. Few trees could withstand the water, so there the evergreen. All this was far was shown for one reason: All travellers from Valinor to Thangorodrim — even Morgoth — passed through Lammoth and Hithlum.
The waters gathered from the lands wandered in intermittent rivulets, for there were no permanent streams. Linaewen, with its fluctuating shores, widespread marshes, and reedy beds, must have been quite shallow — probably only about twenty feet in depth.
These were the lands held mostly by the Sindar, with the notable exception of Finrod's realm of Nargothrond though the Noldor later retreated to Beleriand after and Narog in the west. The most noticeable features be enlarged, developing steep falls.In contrast Mt.
In despair she cast herself into the water. There the strength of evil was so great that a siege was mounted. The times for them were dark — dark in knowledge, and soon, dark in evil. The company floated past the north downs after passing the Limlight.