download Knitting Technology - 3rd Edition. Print Book & E-Book. ISBN , Knitting Technology details the fundamental principles of knitting. The book will be of great use to anyone involved in weft and warp knitting. Knitting technology. Front Cover. David J. Spencer. Pergamon Press From inside the book AN INTRODUCTION TO TEXTILE TECHNOLOGY. 1. GENERAL.

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KNITTING TECHNOLOGY BY David J Spencer ebook free download |KNITTING TECHNOLOGY BY David J Spencer pdf free download|textile. The third edition of Knitting Technology, widely recognised as the definitive text on and Practic and millions of other books are available for site site. eBook features: Highlight, take notes, and search in the book; In this edition, page numbers are just like the physical edition; Length: pages; Format: Print .

The presser may be in the form of a bar, blade, verge or wheel, with either the presser or the needle remaining stationary whilst the other element moves towards it. Another feature of bearded needle knitting is that individual loop formation has to be achieved by a loop forming element. This leads to a more complicated knit- ting action but also provides for a more gentle and careful loop formation.

Pierre Jeandeau patented the first latch needle also known as the tumbler needle in but there is no evidence of its practical use [1,2]. There is also no evidence that the pivoting of a broken pocket knife blade led to the development of the latch spoon. Matthew Townsend was a Leicester fancy hosier who was searching for a simpler method of knitting purl fabrics than using a frame with two sets of bearded needles and pressers.

Townsend not only realised that a latch needle, which dispensed with the need for a presser, could be employed in a double-headed form to knit purl, he also foresaw the use of single-headed latch needles in plain and rib circular machines, flat machines and single and double needle bar warp knitting machines, as well as the use of holding-down sinkers for single needle bed knitting. Although the first needles were crude, a Mr. Fitchett used them to knit borders for cravats which he exhibited at the Great Exhibition of Townsend, who lacked engineering skill and financial backing, sold the rights of his latch needle to Joseph Pool of Leicester and Hine Mundella of Nottingham, and emigrated to Canton, Massachusetts in In his defence, Townsend stated that latch needles had been in use in France for many years, but he was unable to provide evidence.

He died in The latch needle was a more expensive and intricate needle to manufacture than the bearded needle. It was more prone to making needle lines as it slides in its trick, particularly if the latch was damaged or there was dirt in the trick. However, the latch needle was quickly employed by the newly emerging American knitting machine industry, whilst British companies preferred the bearded needle.

The latter believed the bearded needle, which could be more precisely manufactured, had a knitting action which produced a better quality knitted structure. It is now accepted that precision-manufactured latch needles can knit structures of the highest quality. This has been dispensed with on most plate metal needles, by pinching in the slot walls to retain the latch blade.

Double-ended purl type needles have a hook at each end; whilst one hook knits, the inactive hook is controlled as a butt by a cam-reciprocated element called a slider. The head of the needle hook is level with the top of the verge of the trick. The loop formed at the previous feeder is in the closed hook.

It is prevented from rising as the needle rises, by holding-down sinkers or web holders that move forward between the needles to hold down the sinker loops. As the needle butt passes up the incline of the clearing cam, the old loop, which is held down by the sinker, slides inside the hook and contacts the latch, turning and opening it. When the needle reaches the top of the cam, the old loop is cleared from the hook and latch spoon on to the stem. At this point the feeder guide plate acts as a guard to prevent the latch from closing the empty hook.

The needle starts to descend the stitch cam so that its latch is below the verge, with the old loop moving under it. At this point the new yarn is fed through a hole in the feeder guide to the descending needle hook, as there is no danger of the yarn being fed below the latch. The old loop contacts the underside of the latch, causing it to close on to the hook. As the head of the needle descends below the top of the trick, the old loop slides off the needle and the new loop is drawn through it.

The continued descent of the needle draws the loop length, which is approximately twice the distance the head of the needle descends, below the surface of the sinker or trick-plate supporting the sinker loop. The distance is determined by the depth setting of the stitch cam, which can be adjusted.

The rest position actually occurs between positions 1 and 2, when the open needle hook just protrudes above the needle trick verge. In this position, a feeder would be passed without the needle receiving a new loop and the old loop would not be cast off, so that a float stitch would be produced. The tucking in the hook position occurs between positions 2 and 3, when the needle can receive the new yarn but the old loop has not been cleared from the open latch.

The latch needle used on the Stoll CMS V-bed flat machine has a spring-loaded latch so that it fully opens and fully closes. Also, the latch spoon does not project beyond the needle head. Loops thus slide easily over the hook and latch, the yarn is less likely to be split, and there is greater security for the knitted loops.

Although the above knitting action is described assuming the needle to be moving through the knitted loops, the movement is relative and the same effect can be achieved by moving the loops over a stationary needle.

It is ideally suited for use with computer-controlled electronic selection devices. The hook is closed automatically after yarn feeding by lowering the needle because the old loop, which was on the stem, slides upwards contacting and pivoting the latch tightly closed and drawing and enclosing the newly fed loop inside the hook.

Latch needles thus knit automatically as they are reciprocated and draw the length of the new loop as they descend to knock-over. Except in raschel warp knit- ting machines, they are arranged to move independently in their tricks or grooves. They can operate at any angle but often require a latch-guard or latch-opening facil- ities as there is a tendency for latches to spring closed as tightly-knitted loops are cleared from the open latches. Individually moving latch needles can draw and form their own needle loops in succession across the needle bed, unlike bearded needles and needles in warp knit- ting machines which move as a unit and thus require sinkers or guides to form the loops around their stems.

Variation of the height of vertical reciprocation of a latch needle at a feeder can produce either missing, tucking or knitting, and depth of descent normally deter- mines loop length.

Specially designed latch needles are capable of facilitating rib loop transference by selective lifting to a height above clearing height.

Double- ended purl needles can slide through the old loops in order to knit from an oppos- ing bed and thus draw a loop from the opposite direction to the previously knitted loop. Friction needles have a slight flex, crimp or bend in the tails so that they contact the side-walls of the tricks in which they are housed. They are used in open-cam systems, where cams may be introduced or taken out of action to divert the needle path.

Frictionless needles are employed in closed cam-tracks that have guard or safety cams on the opposite side to the knitting cams to produce a completely enclosed track, through which the needles run otherwise the freely-moving needles would be thrown out of their tricks at high knitting speeds.

The two parts rise and fall as a single unit but, at the top of the rise, the hook moves faster to open the hook and at the start of the fall the hook descends faster to close the hook. It is easier to drive the hooks and tongues collectively from two separate bars in warp knitting than to move each hook and tongue individually, as in weft knitting. A compound needle with a sliding latch was first patented by Jeacock of Leicester in It now dominates the warp knitting industry after suffering a set-back against high-speed bearded needle machines in the s.

However, in weft knitting, where versatility and needle selection are as important as knitting speed, it has only made limited inroads in certain specialist or prototype areas.

General terms and principles of knitting technology 27 Fig. Two types of compound needle have been employed in warp knitting machines. The tubular pipe needle has its tongue sliding inside the tube of the open hook. Development then ceased and bearded needle tricot machines recaptured their market with higher speeds, only to be later outpaced by a more efficient type of compound needle, the slide compound needle. This needle is now preferred because it is simpler, cheaper, more compact and each of the two parts can be separately replaced.

Each of its two parts must be separately and precisely con- trolled during knitting. It is particularly a problem when knitting multiple tucks.

Adjustment of a machine setting is therefore a very skilled operation. Lifting of the tongue out of its guide groove at high speeds or as the result of dirt or fly can also be a problem, particularly if it splits filament yarns. In addition, differential heat expansion between the hook and its closer can cause problems. On the other hand, the vertical clearing height for the compound needle is not so high because only the open hook and not an open latch spoon has to be cleared.

The shorter vertical stroke can be achieved with a smaller cam system in V-bed flat knitting. Also, when clearing, the compact head of the compound needle does not cause stretching of needle loops and robbing of yarn from adjacent sinker loops as the needle rises to clear or descends to knock-over, as is the case with the latch needle.

The needle can knit tight, uniform stitches that tend to be rounder than the long, narrow loops produced by latch needles. The compound needle has a short, smooth, simple harmonic movement without latch and beard inertia problems, so there is less vibration. Also, there is no stress on needle loops to open and close latches. The hook of the compound needle does not have to withstand the shock of a latch spoon hitting it.

It can therefore be tapered to a slimmer diameter, producing a larger area inside the hook that can accommodate thicker yarns. This is particularly useful in the case of fine gauge, V-bed flat machinery.

Its slim construction and short hook make it particularly suitable for knitting fine warp knitted structures at high speed. It can knit chain stitches without the loops rising up the needles, and its sturdy construction resists the deflection generated by elastic yarns or thick places in yarns. Accumulations of lint are pushed out of the hook by the action of the closing element.

It is now employed in all types of warp knitting machines apart from double needle bar raschels and raschel simplex machines. Horizontal yarn tension between front and back needle bars can cause the two sets of needle hooks to be drawn towards each other and away from contact with their hook-closing sliders. The compound needle has not lived up to its earlier promise in circular weft knit- ting.

It has failed to gain a foothold in hosiery and even in simple plain knit single jersey. Vignoni are now the only circular machine builder to continue to include it as an option.

In V-bed flat knitting, Shima Seiki are successfully employing an open-slot com- pound needle in their coarse gauge 3 to 5 gauge V-bed flat machines, resulting in a more compact cam box and reduced width of machine. The needle has conven- tional knit, tuck, miss and rib loop transfer facilities. The closing element passes through a slot in the hook element to the back, so that the two elements are held in contact with each other.

Stop ledges on the two elements engage so that, after a certain distance, the individual movement of the element is converted into a collective movement of the two elements together. Shima Seiki also used compound needles in their prototype four needle bed model SWG-X WholeGarment machine because the four needle beds are so close to each other that there is no space for latches to turn-over. These ascend during knitting to only half the height of latch needles. This closing element also has a small cut-away section on its outward surface that can be used for retaining loops separately from those inside the hook.

On the Shima machine, the slide needles are centre-mounted, minimising yarn stress and damage. It should be noted that the gauge is mea- sured on one needle bed, so a machine of the same gauge but with two needle beds will have a total of twice as many needles as a machine with one bed. The gauge measured at the point of needle location is the same as that at the point of loop formation.

The pitch, or distance between one needle and another, is proportional to the needle gauge or thickness. The space available, which determines the maximum thickness of the yarn i. Machine gauge can be calculated by dividing the total number of needles into the length of the needle bed.

The figure is rounded to the nearest whole number. For example, a 4-inch diameter sock machine has needles. The diameter of a yarn is proportional to its count, so a relationship exists between the range of optimum counts of yarn that may be knitted on a particular machine and its gauge. Machine gauge thus influences choice of yarn count and affects fabric properties such as appearance and weight.

For a given machine diameter or width, finer gauge machines tend to knit a wider fabric because more wales are involved. Loop sizes will naturally be smaller so more courses of loops will be required per centimetre of fabric knitted and production rates in linear metres of fabric will be less than for a coarser gauge machine.

Also, with more and finer needles there is a higher machine cost and a greater potential for needle damage to occur. A inch diameter single jersey circular machine might have needles in E 18 and in E Coarse gauge machines have needles with larger dimensions and larger needle movements.

The knitting cam systems are correspondingly larger, so coarse gauge machines tend to have larger cam boxes and less feed systems around their cylin- der than finer gauge machines.

It can thus be assumed that machines at the coarse and fine ends of gauge ranges are more expensive to build and operate than machines in the middle of the gauge range. Originally, needles were cast in small metal blocks termed leads, which were then fitted into a needle bar. In the bearded needle straight bar frame, needles were cast two to a lead and gauged in the number of leads per 3 inches of the needle bar, which is equivalent to a gauge of the number of needles in 1—12 inches.

In bearded needle warp knitting machines, needles were cast three to a lead, giving a gauge directly in needles per inch. In the raschel warp knitting machine, the needles were cast in 2-inch leads giving a raschel gauge of needles per 2 inches. If two needle beds are employed e. V-bed or double-jersey circular machines , the gauge is measured on one bed since the needles in the other bed are to the same gauge unless stated. Also, small diameter single- and double-cylinder hosiery machines have a gauge expressed in the form diameter multiplied by total number of needles, because the number of double-headed needles in a particular cylinder of the double-cylinder machine varies according to the rib set-out.

On some machines it is possible to change the needle beds and camming, and therefore the gauge. The extra spare parts can, however, cost about one third of the cost of a machine. It is also sometimes possible to employ finer or coarser needles than the machine gauge, thus producing finer or coarser knitted stitches.

One well- known technique used on the V-bed flat machine is to half-gauge the needle bed by taking every other needle out of action. Thus a machine with 10 needles per inch would become twice as coarse, with only 5 needles per inch. Increasing or decreas- ing the number of ends of a particular count of yarn will also produce the appear- ance of a heavier or finer gauge. Further information anon.

Where do we go from here? The secret history of the latch needle, Knit. Times, 12 May , 64— Times, 4 April , 18— A brief life history of Matthew Townsend, Knit. It is a thin metal plate with an individual or a collective action operating approximately at right angles from the hook side of the needle bed, between adjacent needles. Loop formation Holding-down Knocking-over It is always advisable to use one or more of the above terms as adjectives when referring to a sinker, in order to avoid confusion.

On the bearded needle loopwheel frame, the blades of burr wheels perform this function, whereas on latch needle weft knitting machines Fig. On the European mainland, particularly in Germany, the term couliering is used to describe the presentation of a yarn, the kinking of it into a needle loop and the knock-over of the old loop.

The second and more common function of sinkers on modern machines is to hold down the old loops at a lower level on the needle stems than the new loops that are being formed, and to prevent the old loops from being lifted as the needles rise to clear them from their hooks. On tricot warp knitting machines and single bed weft knitting machines, a slot or throat T in Fig.

Holding-down sinkers are often unnecessary when knitting with two needle bed machines as the second bed restrains the fabric loops whilst the other set of needles moves. However, if single bed knitting or held loop structure is knitted, a form of holding-down element may still be required as is the case with some V-bed flat knitting machines.

The third function of the sinker — as a knock-over surface — is illustrated in Fig. On tricot warp knitting machines the sinker belly is specially shaped to assist with landing as well as knock-over. On raschel warp knit- ting machines, many V-bed flats, and cylinder and dial circular machines, the verge or upper surface of the trick-plate V in Fig.

On some machines, the knock-over surface moves in opposition to the descent of the needle see Relanit, Chapter 13; and Shima contra sinkers, Chapter It is placed below and in the same trick as the needle and has its own operating butt and cam system.

Cams are the devices which convert the rotary machine drive into a suitable reciprocating action for the needles and other elements. The move- ments may be represented in the form of a time-displacement graph.

KNITTING TECHNOLOGY BY David J Spencer ( 3rd edition )

They are attached to a rotary drive shaft situated parallel to, and below, the needle bar. A number of identical cams are positioned along the shaft to ensure correctly aligned movement.

The drive is transmitted and adapted via cam- followers, levers, pivots and rocker shafts. One complete degree revolution of the drive shaft is equivalent to one knitting cycle, and it produces all the required movements of the elements in their correctly-timed relationship. In warp knitting machines, four types of cam drive have been employed: The first type requires a powerful spring to negatively retain the cam truck or follower in contact with the cam surface, where bounce and excessive wear occur at speed.

The cam and counter cam arrangement provides a cam and its follower in each direction of movement, but is obviously more expensive to manufacture. The box or enclosed cam employs a single cam follower, which is guided by the two cam races of a groove on the face of the cam.

However, change of contact from one face to the other causes the follower to turn in the opposite direction, producing wear which cannot be compensated. The contour, ring or pot cam is the reverse of the box cam as the cam profile projects out from one face of the cam in the form of a lip with a cam- follower placed on either side of it.

This is a popular and easily adaptable arrange- ment. Although cams are comparatively cheap, simple and accurate, at speeds above courses per minute they are subject to excessive vibration.

For this reason, at speeds in excess of that, eccentric drive is now employed. The eccentric is a form of crank which provides a simple harmonic movement with smooth acceleration and deceleration. Its widespread use is the result of adapt- ing this simple motion and modifying it to the requirements of the warp knitting machine, so that even dwell stationary periods in the element cycle can be achieved. On the FNF compound needle machine, the movements of two eccentric drive shafts, one turning twice as fast as the other, were superimposed on each other.

Now, however, the simpler, single eccentric drive is successfully driving element bars at speeds in excess of courses per minute. Two arrangements exist: In weft knitting, the yarn feed position is fixed in relation to the cam system Fig. In the past, most garment-length knitwear and underwear machines have had revolving cam boxes because changes to the cam settings during the garment sequence can be initiated from a single control position as the cam-boxes pass by; also the garment lengths are stationary and may be inspected or removed whilst the machine is knitting.

Now, most new electronically-controlled garment-length machines are of the revolving cylinder type as electronics have removed the need for the complex arrangement of rods and levers found, for example, on mechanically-controlled half-hose machines Fig. All hosiery machines and all fabric-producing machines are revolving cylinder machines because the weight of revolving multi-feeder yarn packages and tackle creates inertia problems that reduce efficiency and knitting speeds.

Knitting cams are attached, either individually or in unit form, to a cam-plate and, depending upon machine design, are fixed, exchangeable or adjustable. In the last case, on garment-length machines this might occur whilst the machine is in opera- tion. Elements such as holding-down sinkers and pelerine loop-transfer points are controlled by their own arrangement of cams attached to a separate cam-plate.

At each yarn feed position there is a set of cams consisting of at least a raising cam, a stitch cam and an upthrow cam Fig. On circular machines there is a removable cam section or door so that knitting elements can be replaced. The raising cam causes the needles to be lifted to either tuck, clearing, loop trans- fer or needle transfer height, depending upon machine design. The swing cam is fulcrummed so that the butts will be unaffected when it is out of the track and it may also be swung into the track to raise the butts.

The bolt cam can be caused to descend into the cam track to control the element butts or be withdrawn out of action so that the butts pass undisturbed across its face; it is mostly used on garment-length machines to produce changes of rib set-outs.

The stitch cam controls the depth to which the needle descends, thus controlling the amount of yarn drawn into the needle loop; it also functions simultaneously as a knock-over cam.

The upthrow or counter cam takes the needles back to the rest position and allows the newly-formed loops to relax. The stitch cam is normally adjustable for different loop lengths and it may be attached to a slide together with the upthrow cam, so that the two are adjusted in unison. The guard cams are often placed on the opposite side of the cam-race to limit the movement of the butts and to prevent needles from falling out of track.

Separate cam-boxes are required for each needle bed or associated element bed and they must be linked together or co-ordinated. If the cam-box itself is moving from right-to-left, the needle butts will pass through in a left-to-right direction. On circular fabric machines, the cams are designed to act in only one direction, but on flat and circular leg-wear machines, the cams are symmetrically arranged to act in both directions of cam-box traverse, with only the leading edges of certain cams in action.

All cam systems are a compromise between speed, variety, needle control and selection systems [1]. When the yarn moves past the needles, the fabric will be stationary because the loops hang from the needles.

KNITTING TECHNOLOGY BY David J Spencer ( 3rd edition )

This arrangement exists on all warp knitting machines, and on weft knitting machines with straight beds and circular machines with stationary cylinders and dials. On straight machines of both weft and warp type, the yarn-carrier or guide has a reciprocating traversing movement that takes it towards and away from a suitably-placed yarn supply. On stationary cylinder and dial machines, however, the yarn supply packages must rotate in order to keep with the continuously revolv- ing yarn feeds.

Because the latch needle beds of these flat and circular weft knitting machines are thus stationary, it is necessary to reciprocate the cam-carriage and revolve the cam-boxes so that the needle butts of the stationary tricks pass through. The needles are thus reciprocated to rise and receive the yarn at the exact moment when the traversing yarn feed is passing by Fig. Most circular weft knitting machines have revolving needle cylinders and sta- tionary cams, feeders and yarn packages.

In this case, the fabric tube must revolve with the needles, as must the fabric rollers and take-up mechanism. Basic mechanical principles of knitting technology 37 4. The action of a straight bar frame is illustrated. Other obsolete circular bearded needle machines such as the sinkerwheel and loopwheel frame employ the same technique. The distance SL, which the catch of the sinker moves past the beard side of the needle, is approximately half the stitch length, 2 Fig.

This method is employed on all latch needle weft knitting machines. The distance SL that the head of the latch needle descends below the knock-over surface in this case, the belly of the knock-over sinker is approximately half the stitch length, and 3 Fig. The lapping movement of the guide is produced from the combination of two sep- arate guide bar motions: The swinging motion is fixed, but the direction and extent of the shogging motion may or may not be varied from a pattern mechanism.

This method is employed on all warp knitting machines and for wrap patterning on weft knitting machines when a fixed wrapping movement is used. The length of yarn per stitch unit is generally determined by the rate of warp yarn feed.

Reference 1. Further information brunnschweiler, r. Times, 26 June , 46— When tension in the fabric is balanced and there is sufficient take-away tension during knitting, it is an upright noose formed in the needle hook. It consists of a head H and two side limbs or legs L. At the base of each leg is a foot F , which meshes through the head of the loop formed at the previous knitting cycle, usually by that needle.

The yarn passes from the foot of one loop into the foot and leg of the next loop formed by it. If the loop is the first loop knitted on that needle, its feet and legs will not be restricted and it will open out to give the appearance of a tuck loop. If the loops are knitted on a flat machine with a pressing down device and no take-down tension, the loops will be more rounded and will tend to incline due to the traversing move- ment of the presser.

In warp knitting the feet may be open or closed at the base of the loop.

In the latter case, the yarn guide has passed across the back of the needle across whose hook it has previously formed a loop. Elements of knitted loop structure 39 In weft knitting, the feet are normally open because the yarn continues to be sup- plied in one direction except at the selvedges of straight knitting machines. Excep- tionally, closed loops have occasionally been produced in the past on the bearded needle sinkerwheel machine, by twisting a loop over as it is transferred to another needle, or by using a twizzle beard which closes onto the back of the needle so that, as the loop is cast-off, it twists over itself.

On bearded needle weft knitting machines, loop-forming sinkers form the sinker loops in succession between the needles — hence the origin of the term sinker loop. On latch needle weft knitting machines, however, the sinker loops are automatically formed as the needles, in succession, draw their new loops.

Sinker loops show on the opposite side of the fabric to the needle loops because the needle loop is drawn onto the opposite side from which the yarn was originally fed. The loops overlaps may be open or closed. On the original warp frame as on many present-day crochet machines , the needle bar was in a horizontal and not a vertical position, with its beards facing upwards Fig. Similarly, the guide was shogged under the needles to a new starting position for the next overlap.

In the warp knitting cycle, it is always understood that the overlap precedes the underlap. Every needle on a conventional warp knitting machine must receive an overlapped loop from at least one guide at every knitting cycle, other- wise it will press-off the fabric.

The swinging movement of the guide to the hook side and the return swing after the overlap, produce the two side limbs of the loop which give a similar appearance on the face side of warp knitted fabric to a weft knitted needle loop.

Very rarely are overlap shogs across two needle hooks, as this produces severe tension on the warp yarn and knitting elements because the needles knock-over in unison and the needles are sharing yarns unlike in single needle overlap warp knitted structures. Two needle overlaps also generally have a poor appearance and physical characteristics because the first overlap of the two will have a different con- figuration of underlap to that of the second.

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In the former, the underlap will be passing along the course to the second overlap in a similar manner to a sinker loop. However, the underlap from the second overlap will lap upwards to the next course in the manner of a normal underlap.

It supplies the warp yarn between one overlap and the next Fig. The underlap shog generally ranges from 0 to 3 needle spaces, but it might be 14 needle spaces or more depending upon the design of the machine and the fabric structure Fig. Elements of knitted loop structure 41 although efficiency and production speed will be correspondingly reduced with long underlaps. Underlaps as well as overlaps are essential in warp knitted structures in order to join the wales of loops together but they may be contributed by different guide bars.

Closed laps are heavier, more compact, more opaque, and less extensible than open laps produced from the same yarn at a comparable knitting quality. Specially controlled warp thread guides are used which make unidirectional warp knitted overlaps into selected needle hooks.

If selected empty needle hooks rise to receive the warp yarn as is the case on a few single jersey machines , pure wrapping or warp insertion is produced. If, however, wrapping takes place on needles, all of which already hold a ground yarn at that knitting cycle, embroidery plating or wrap striping is produced; this is a technique occasionally used on some half-hose machines. It usually consists of three or more intermeshed needle loops Fig. The centre loop has been drawn through the head of the lower previously-formed loop and is, in turn, intermeshed through its head by the loop above it.

The repeat unit of a stitch is the minimum repeat of intermeshed loops that can be placed adjoining other repeat units in order to build up an unbroken sequence in width and depth. A needle loop only has its characteristic appearance because its legs are pre- vented from spreading outwards by being intermeshed through the head of the loop below it.

If there is no previous loop to mesh through, the legs of the new loop will spread outwards.

The term stitch is unfortunately sometimes used to refer to a single needle loop. Stitch length is a length of yarn which includes the needle loop and half the sinker loop on either side of it. Generally, the larger the stitch length, the more extensible and lighter the fabric and the poorer the cover, opacity and bursting strength.

Elements of knitted loop structure 43 5. The intermeshings at 1 and 2 are always identical with each other as are intermeshings 3 and 4 with each other. It is impossible to draw a new loop through the old loop so that its two feet are alternately intermeshed Fig. This could only be achieved by taking the yarn package through the old loop.

Although this would produce a locked loop, the package used would not be large enough to provide a continuous supply. A new loop can thus only be intermeshed through the head of the old loop in a manner that will show a face loop stitch on one side and a reverse loop stitch on the other side. This is because the needle hook is uni-directional and can only draw a new loop down through an old loop.

It is referred to as the right side in mainland Europe. The face loop-side is the underside of the stitch on the needle. It is referred to as the left side on the mainland of Europe. Reverse stitches show the sinker loops in weft knitting and the underlaps in warp knitting most prominently on the surface.

The reverse loop side is the nearest to the head of the needle because the needle draws the new loop downwards through the old loop Figures 4. Warp knitting machines and knitting elements. Principles of loop formation in warp knitting. Warp-knitted stitches and structures. Double needle bar warp knitting machines.

Some aspects of warp knitting science. Development in knitting. Yarn and its selection for knitting. Application of electronics in knitting. Yarn tension in knitting and its measurements. If you decide to participate, a new browser tab will open so you can complete the survey after you have completed your visit to this website. Thanks in advance for your time. Skip to content.

About Elsevier. Search for books, journals or webpages All Pages Books Journals. View on ScienceDirect. Hardcover ISBN: Paperback ISBN: Woodhead Publishing. Published Date: Page Count: View all volumes in this series: Woodhead Publishing Series in Textiles. Sorry, this product is currently unavailable. Sorry, this product is currently out of stock. Flexible - Read on multiple operating systems and devices. Easily read eBooks on smart phones, computers, or any eBook readers, including site.

When you read an eBook on VitalSource Bookshelf, enjoy such features as: Access online or offline, on mobile or desktop devices Bookmarks, highlights and notes sync across all your devices Smart study tools such as note sharing and subscription, review mode, and Microsoft OneNote integration Search and navigate content across your entire Bookshelf library Interactive notebook and read-aloud functionality Look up additional information online by highlighting a word or phrase.The sinker is fully withdrawn whilst the needle descends to knock- over its old loop on the sinker belly.

However, selection has, in the past, been achieved by using four feeder courses for each pattern row of interlock, long and short cylinder needles not selected at the first two feeder courses for colour A being selected at the second two feeders for colour B.

At the start of the next row course , the pins may be changed hands and the action continued. Co-We-Nit Part 3 , Knit. On each side, the sinker loops draw the wales together and prevent the loops on the newly-introduced needles from forcing the wales apart. Covers rubbed.

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